United States trading partners, led by Asian powerhouses China and Japan, lashed out on Friday at controversial tariffs on foreign steel and aluminium signed off by President Donald Trump, as fears grew of a global trade war.
Close ally Japan warned the tariffs of 25% on imported steel and 10% on aluminium "could have a grave impact on the economic relationship" between the world's top and third-largest economies.
Japan's top government spokesman Yoshihide Suga said the move could harm the global trading system and the entire world economy and said Tokyo would urge the US to give the country an exemption.
The world's second-biggest economy, China, was also vocal in its opposition, deriding the tariffs as "a serious attack on normal international trade order."
In a sharp reversal from decades of a US-led drive towards more open trade, Trump declared on Thursday that America had been "ravaged by aggressive foreign trade practices."
"It's really an assault on our country," he blasted, announcing the tariffs on the metals used in everything from cars to construction, roads to railways.
Trump said the tariffs -- which will come into effect after 15 days -- will not initially apply to Canada and Mexico, and that close partners on security and trade could negotiate exemptions.
Canada was the single-largest US source of steel last year, followed by Brazil, South Korea, Russia, Mexico, Japan and Germany.
The US neighbour to the north was also by far the largest supplier of alumina and aluminium, followed by China, Russia and the United Arab Emirates.
Trump had indicated he would be flexible toward "real friends," and during the signing confirmed Canada and Mexico would be exempted permanently if the ongoing renegotiation of the North American Free Trade Agreement is successful.
But both Mexico and Canada rejected Trump's linkage of the levies to ongoing Nafta talks.
Canada's foreign affairs minister termed the two things "separate issues" while Mexico's economy ministry said "the negotiation of the Nafta should not be subject to conditions outside the process."
The US leader had also added Australia to a list of likely carve-outs, as a "great country" and "long-term partner."
'All necessary steps'
However, he took aim at Germany, reviving a longstanding gripe that European Nato allies do not pay their fair share.
"Many of the countries that treat us the worst on trade and on the military are our allies, as they call them," he complained.
The EU, Brazil and Britain were also quick to launch broadsides against the tariffs, which are worth billions of dollars.
The top European Union trade official Cecilia Malmstroem insisted the entire bloc "should be excluded" from the tariffs as a "close ally," vowing to "seek more clarity" from Washington.
Britain blasted the tariffs as "not the right way" to tackle the problem of global overcapacity in steel and said it would work with the EU to consider the scope for exemptions.
The EU has promised tariffs on items from steel to peanut butter, bourbon and denim -- most of which are produced in states that Trump needs to win re-election.
Major producer Brazil immediately vowed to take "all necessary steps" in order to "protect its rights and interests" in response to the US move.
Off the cuff
Last week Trump stunned the world -- and his own aides -- with an off-the-cuff announcement of his plan, even before White House lawyers judged the legality of the tariffs.
Trump said he was merely fulfilling a campaign promise, saying he had been talking about perceived trade injustices "a long time, a lot longer than my political career."
And while the full economic impact remains unknown, the political fallout was swift with the top Republican in Congress Paul Ryan publicly denouncing Trump's move, and vowing to push him to narrow its focus to "countries and practices that violate trade law."
The move also sparked the resignation of top economic advisor Gary Cohn in protest.
And even as Trump approved the tariffs, 11 partners in the Asia-Pacific were in Santiago, Chile, to sign a multilateral trade deal embraced by president Barack Obama but rejected by Trump.
However, stock markets in Asia rallied as traders said the tariffs could have been worse. Equities were also buoyed by the news that Trump would meet North Korean leader Kim Jong Un.